Tuesday 14 April 2020

All, None , Every

She works all day everyday.
Notice the difference. Can you?

All  can be followed by of to show the amount of something
  Rob used all (of) the paper.
All can be used for emphasis. Note the position.
    They all wore blue shorts and shirts.
    Those stamps you gave me have all disappeared.
All means the only thing when it is used in the construction all + subject + verb.
    All I want is some peace and quiet.
It is unusual to use all as a single-word subject or object. Instead we use everything to mean 'all the things'.
    Everything has gone wrong! (NOT All has gone wrong!)
    Thanks for everything  (NOT Thanks for all)
We tend to use everybody and not all the people

No           When no is used to show the quantity of something, it can mean not any.
    There are no plates left. No new students have joined the class.
  • No is not normally used alone before an adjective. Compare:
        This book doesn’t have any interesting parts. (usual)
        There are no interesting parts in this book. (unusual – very emphatic)
None       We do not use no of. Instead, we use none of or none on its own.
    None of the films that are showing in town look very interesting.
    I’ve checked all the films that are showing in town. None look very interesting.

-In everyday speech none is often followed by a plural verb form.
-In formal speech or writing it can be followed by a singular verb form.
    None of these telephones work.
    None of the members of the committee has arrived yet.
  • To emphasize the idea of none we can use none at all or not one.
        A: How many people came to the party?
        B: None! / None at all! / Not one!
Each, every       The meaning of each and every is very similar and often either word is possible.
    Each / Every time I come here I walk round the park.
But sometimes there is a small difference. 
-We use each when we think of the single items in a group, one by one. 
-We use every when we think of the items in a group all together. Compare:
    They gave a medal to each member of the team. //
I believed every word he said.
  • Each can refer to only two items, while every cannot.
        She kissed him on each cheek.
    She kissed every member of the winning team.
  • We can use each of, but we cannot use every of.
        When the team won the cup, each of them was given a medal.
  • Each can be used after the subject, or at the end of a sentence.
        The team members each received a medal.
        The team members received a medal each.
  • Repeated actions are generally described with every.     I practise the violin every day.
Both, Either, neither
1) Both means two of two things.  >  I have two cats. I like both of them.
2) Neither means not one or the other of two things.  > Neither of my cats is grey.
* Remember to use a singular verb after neither.
Neither of the dogs are dangerous. => Neither of the dogs is dangerous.
3) Either means one or the other. There are two cakes. Please have one. You can have either one.

1) You can use both, neither and either directly before a noun.
Both supermarkets are good.
Neither supermarket sells electrical goods.
We can go to either supermarket, I don’t mind.

2) Both, neither and either are often used with ‘of’. But you must always use a determiner (the, my, these, those, his etc) before the noun.
Both of children like chocolate cake. => Both of the children like chocolate cake.
However, you don’t have to use of with both.
Both of the children like chocolate cake.
Both children like chocolate cake. 

3) You can use both, neither and either+ of + object pronoun (you, them, us).
Both of them wore white dresses. 
Neither of us was late. 
either of you got a pen?

4) You can use both ... and ...; neither ... nor ..., and either ... or ....
Both James and Diana work here.
Neither James nor Diana works here.

All, Some, Most

All cars have wheels.
Some cars can go faster than others.
No cars  (= no cars allowed)
• I don't go out very often. I'm at home most days.

You cannot say 'all of cars', 'most of people' etc.
Some people are very unfriendly, (not 'some of people')
 Note that we say most (not 'the most'):
Most tourists don't visit this part of the town, (not 'the most tourists')

Some of... / most of... / none of... etc.
You can use some, most,   none and   half with of. 
You can say some of (the people),
most of (my friends), none of (this money) etc.

We use some of, most of (etc.) + the / this / that / these / those / my / his / Ann's... etc.

So we say: 
 Some of the people, some of those people (but not 'some of people')
Most of my friends, most of Ann's friends (but not 'most of friends')
None of this money, none of their money (but not 'none of money')

For example:
Some of the people I work with are very friendly.
None of this money is mine.
• Have you read any of these books?
• I wasn't well yesterday. I spent most of the day in bed.

You don't need of after all or half. So you can say:
All my friends live in London, or All of my friends...
Half this money is mine or  Half of this money....

Compare all... and all (of) the...:

All flowers are beautiful. (= all flowers in general)
All (of) the flowers in this garden are beautiful. (= a particular group of flowers)

You can use all of / some of / none of etc. + it/us/you/them:

 'How many of these people do you know? 'None of them.' / 'A few of them.'
• Do any of you want to come to a party tonight?
• 'Do you like this music? 'Some of it.  Not all of it.'

Before it/us/you/them you need of after all and half (all of, half of):

all of us (not 'all us')            half of them (not 'half them')

You can use the words in the box (and also none) alone, without a noun:
• Some cars have four doors and some have two.
• A few of the shops were open but most (of them) were closed.
• Half (of) this money is mine, and half (of it) is yours, (not 'the half)

Choose whether to write OF or 0 (X) in the boxes
1. All cars have wheels.

2. None this money is mine.

3. Some people get angry very easily.

4. I have lived in London most my life.

5. Some the people I met at the party were very interesting.

6. Many people watch too much TV.

7. Are any those letters for me?

8. Most days I get up before 7 o'clock

9. Jim thinks that all
museums are boring.

Answers in comment 1 

Source Learn English

Tuesday 24 March 2020

Writing a Report

Visiting Seville, Spain

Go HERE and select the most relevant information to write a report of about 200 words. 

You can use some of these for your headings:   what to see, where to eat, when to visit, where to stay or how  to save money during your visit ...

An example of a report:

Thursday 5 March 2020

Purpose and Contrast Clauses- Further Revision

Clauses of purpose

Clauses of purpose are used to show why something is happening. We can use ‘to’, ‘for’, ‘in order to’, ‘so as to’ and ‘so that’.

We often use ’to’ to show why something is happening. We use the infinitive form of the verb:
  • My mother went out to buy some milk.
  • ’m going to Spain to see my friend.
  • I’m going outside to find some flowers.


We use ‘for’ to show the exact purpose of something. It is followed by a noun or a gerund (-ing):
  • We went to the supermarket for bread.
  • The mop is for cleaning the floor.
  • She went out for a meal.

In order to

In order to’ is more formal than ‘to’. Again, we use the infinitive form of the verb:
  • I did some research in order to find the best music player.
  • A meeting was arranged in order to discuss the team’s progress.
  • Harry studied all night in order to pass his English exam.

So as to

So as to’ is also more formal than ‘to’. Again, we use the infinitive form of the verb:
  • I bought a smaller car so as to save money.
  • Elliot moved to a new house so as to be closer to his parents.
  • She left early so as to be at home with her family.

Note: When we want to say something negative using ‘in order to’ or ‘so as to’, we can put ‘not’ before the ‘to’.

For example:

– I woke up early in order not to miss the bus.
– I woke up early so as not to miss the bus.

So that

So that’ is paired with a subject and a modal verb like ‘could’, ‘would’, ‘can’ or ‘will’:
  • I gave her my phone number so that she could call me.
  • I’m going out so that I can buy fruit.
  • I did some exercise so that I would feel better.

Clauses of contrast

Clauses of contrast (or concession) are used to show the difference between two statements. We can use ‘although’, ‘though’, ‘even though’, ‘in spite of’ and ‘despite’.


Although’ can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. It is followed by a subject and a verb:
  • Although it rained, they enjoyed their walk.
  • They enjoyed their walk, although it rained.


We use ‘though’ in a similar way to ‘although’, but it is more informal. In spoken English, ‘though’ is more common than ‘although’:
  • Though it was expensive, I enjoyed the meal.
  • I enjoyed the meal, though it was expensive.

Even though

Even though’ is a little stronger than ‘though’ and ‘although’. It can also be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. Again, it is followed by a subject and a verb:
  • Even though I was full, I couldn’t stop eating.
  • I couldn’t stop eating, even though I was full.

In spite of

We use ‘in spite of’ at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. It is followed by a noun, a pronoun or a gerund (-ing):
  • In spite of the pain, Harry finished the race.
  • Harry finished the race, in spite of the pain.


We use ‘despite’ at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence, too. Again, it is followed by a noun, a pronoun or a gerund (-ing):
  • Despite the snow, I drove to my grandma’s house.
  • I drove to my grandma’s house, despite the snow.

Note: Do not use ‘of’ with ‘despite’. For example:

– I drove to my grandma’s house, despite the snow.
NOT: I drove to my grandma’s house, despite of the snow.

You must use ‘of’ with ‘in spite of’. For example:

– I drove to my grandma’s house, in spite of the snow.
NOT: I drove to my grandma’s house, in spite the snow.SOURCE: https://grammartop.com/adverbial-clauses-of-contrast-and-purpose/

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